While this is related to retries, I don't think it's a function of a retry interceptor - that is all about doing retries of calls to the actual service.
This is all about fast-failure of a message handler call (e.g. if the target system is down), whether or not the message is a retry.
That said, I suppose we could have one interceptor that handles retries and circuit breaker functionality.
Initial cut at an implementation is here... https://github.com/garyrussell/spring-integration/commit/e07d13780ef97ebfedfa9e71cfa63b96555e7f61
It's not much code; please take a look and comment if you have time.